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Saturday, November 21, 2020 | History

3 edition of CANDU fuel cycle flexibility found in the catalog.

CANDU fuel cycle flexibility

D. F. Torgerson

CANDU fuel cycle flexibility

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  • 19 Currently reading

Published by Fuel Materials Branch, Chalk River Laboratories in Chalk River, Ont .
Written in English

  • Nuclear fuels -- Canada.,
  • Reactor fuel reprocessing.

  • Edition Notes

    Statementby D.F. Torgerson, P.G. Boczar and A.R. Dastur.
    SeriesAECL research (Series) -- 11129
    ContributionsBoczar, P. G., Dastur, A. R., Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference (9th : 1994 : Sydney, N.S.W.)
    LC ClassificationsTK9360 .T67 1994
    The Physical Object
    Pagination10 p.
    Number of Pages10
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL17101316M
    ISBN 100660156083

    Spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste from the fuel cycle of commercial nuclear power plants represent a small proportion of the radioactive waste produced globally by different industries, but they account for the greatest radioactivity content and longevity. Advanced Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Technologies: Outlook and Policy Options All commercial nuclear power plants in the United States, as well as nearly all nuclear plants worldwide, use light wate r reactor (LWR) technology that was initially developed for naval propulsion. Cooled by ordinary water, LWRs in the early years.

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CANDU fuel cycle flexibility by D. F. Torgerson Download PDF EPUB FB2

Note: Citations are based on reference standards. However, formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study. The specific requirements or preferences of your reviewing publisher, classroom teacher, institution or organization should be applied. The independence of the neutrons' energies from the nuclear fuel used is what allows such fuel flexibility in a CANDU reactor, since every fuel bundle will experience the same CANDU fuel cycle flexibility book and affect its neighbors in the same way, whether the fissile material is uranium, uranium or plutonium.

historical difficulty in predicting the availability and cost of energy resources and fuel-cycle technologies, and the large uncertainties and variability in many of the factors, a superior nuclear energy strategy must include fuel-cycle flexibility.

An inherent feature of the CANDU design is its very high degree of fuel-cycle flexibility. THE BACK END OF THE FUEL CYCLE AND CANDU C.J. ALLAN AECL, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River K.W.

DORMUTH AECL, Sheridan Park, Mississauga Ontario, Canada Abstract CANDU reactor operators have benefited from several advantages of the CANDU system and from AECL’s experience, with regard to spent fuel handling, storage and disposal. CANDU fuel cycle flexibility book The Advanced CANDU reactor (ACR), or ACR, is a Generation III+ nuclear reactor designed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL).

It combines features of the existing CANDU pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) with features of light-water cooled pressurized water reactors (PWR). CANDU Reactor Fuel Cycle Flexibility: › - CANDU Fuel Cycle Advantages › - Operational Reactors (NUE) › - CANDU Reactor Inherent Safety Features › - New Build Reactors (AFCR) › - Future With Water Coolant › Dr.

Kuran › VP, Advanced Fuel CANDU Reactor Workshop on Advanced Reactors, NEA/OECD Paris, France, April The possible options for advanced fuel cycles in CANDU reactors including actinide burning options and thorium cycles were explored and are feasible options to increase the efficiency of uranium utilization and help close the fuel cycle.

The actinide burning TRUMOX approach uses a mixed oxide fuel. • Fuel Management (F/M) is essential for continued normal operation changes in fuel composition with irradiation a fuel depletion leads to decline in potential reactivity of fuel a power distribution varies (slowly) with time, because burnup is not uniform size of reactor.

CANDU Fuel-Cycle Flexibility. To be commercially viable with a natural-uranium fuel cycle, there is an absolute need for high neutron economy. From the outset, this led to design and operating decisions that give the CANDU design the most efficient neutron utilization of any power reactor in the world.

P.G. Boczar, in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Science and Engineering, Synergism with LWR systems. High neutron economy and good fuel utilization make the CANDU reactor complementary to LWRs, since the used fuel from the latter has more than enough fissile material to fuel a CANDU reactor. One such fuel cycle is RU from reprocessed LWR fuel.

The motivation includes fissile resource extension, fuel cycle economics, and waste management, environmental, political and strategic considerations. Technically, several fuel cycles are ready for exploitation, but at present all Canadian reactors use the natural uranium (NU) fuel by: 1.

A premise in the DUPIC fuel cycle development is to make the maximum use of existing CANDU reactors to burn DUPIC fuel. The inherent features of the CANDU reactor, such as excellent neutron economy and on-power refuelling, result in an unsurpassed degree of fuel cycle flexibility, enabling DUPIC fuel to be utilized safely and economically in.

out of the fuel matrix. Other chapters in this book deal with preventing fission by-products which escape from the fuel matrix from reaching the public. CANDU reactors can locate and discharge fuel assemblies that release fission by-products into the coolant at power to minimize the effect of fuel defects on plant operation and the public.

Abstract. The fuel-cycle flexibility of CANDU reactors provides many options for the management of weapons-derived plutonium.

These options include the use of conventional mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel for plutonium dispositioning as well as advanced options for plutonium P. Chan, M. Gagnon, P. Boczar, R.

Ellis, R. Verrall. @article{osti_, title = {CANDU MOX fuel fabrication development}, author = {Dimayuga, F.C.}, abstractNote = {Research and development on plutonium-containing mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) commenced more than 30 years ago, and it remains a significant and strategic part of AECL`s advanced fuel cycle program.

fuel cycle flexibility for future resource sustainability With the need for sustainable fuel cycles, the CANDU reactor is unique in that several viable fuel cycles are possible using both fissile.

The Advanced Fuel CANDU Reactor (AFCR), which retains the excellent neutron economy and fuel cycle flexibility that are inherent in the CANDU reactor design, is a design jointly undertaken by Candu Energy and its Chinese partners led by Mustapha Boubcher, Zhiliang Meng, Catherine M.

Cottrell, Sermet Kuran. A dynamic fuel cycle analysis for a heterogeneous thorium-DUPIC recycle in CANDU reactors “ Nuclear Energy Y ear Book P.G.

Boczar, and A.D. Dastur, "CANDU Fuel Cycle Flexibility. Apr 24,  · The AFCR and its Contributions to the Back End of the Fuel Cycle CANDU Fuel Cycle Flexibility 10 The flexibility to utilize advanced fuels is a key differentiator of CANDU technology, possible due to: › Adaptable core through on-power refuelling › Efficient fuel utilization › Simple and small fuel bundle › Minimal changes in reactor.

May 23,  · The report, written by nuclear energy expert Mark Hibbs (right) at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (), says China’s ambitious plans for nuclear energy could see it operating several hundred power reactors byimplementing a transition from pressurized water reactors (PWRs) to more advanced nuclear systems, and it has or will demonstrate a closed fuel cycle.

The primary objective of CANDU in-core fuel management is to determine fuel-loading and fuel-replacement strategies to operate the reactor in a safe and reliable fashion while keeping the total unit energy cost low. Within this context, the specific objectives of CANDU in.

Uranium ore, as it is mined from the ground, is not directly usable for power generation. Much processing must be carried out before uranium can be used efficiently to generate electricity. Uranium’s transformation from ore into nuclear fuel and, eventually, the handling of waste products, is described as the nuclear fuel cycle.

There are several steps in the nuclear fuel cycle: Mining. CANDU FUEL: CANDU reactors use standard size fuel bundles. Each fuel bundle is about cm in outside diameter and is about m long. Each fuel bundle consists of 37 to 43 parallel zirconium sheathed tubes on approximately cm centers that contain uranium oxide pellets.

A CANDU-E6 reactor has pressure tubes also known as fuel channels. The AFCR’s fuel flexibility allows it to use recycled uranium or thorium as fuel. It has a heavy-water moderator and, a heavy-water coolant, and a pressure tube design. Like all CANDU reactors, it can be refuelled on-power and has one of the highest lifetime capacity.

Apr 08,  · Excellent neutron economy, on-power refueling, a simple fuel bundle, and the fundamental CANDU fuel channel design provide the EC6 reactor with unsurpassed flexibility in accommodating a wide range of advanced fuels and fuel cycles in addition to the standard natural Jerry Hopwood, Ian J.

Hastings, Michael Soulard. Nuclear fuel cycle-Spent fuel management by I.L. Rybalchenko and J.P. Colton* The light-water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle has always been based on the assumption that the spent fuel would stay for between one and three years in storage basins at the reactor before being reprocessed.

Only a limited storage capacity is required in the fast breeder. HWR have become a significant proportion of world reactor installations second only to the Light Water Reactors (LWR).

They provide fuel cycle flexibility for the future and can potentially burn the recycled fuel from LWR, with no major reactor design changes. Burnup extension affects several important stages of the fuel cycle and concerns the whole nuclear fuel cycle industry.

Increase of burnup reflects on the requirements for natural uranium, enrichment and fuel fabrication, reactor core configuration and its control, fuel performance and the back end of the fuel cycle, such as spent fuel handling.

academia, and others, as described in Appendix E, and on a variety of written reports. The committee also saw copies of slides presented at a GNEP panel session at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) on March 15,and GNEP-relevant presentations at the American Chemical Society annual meeting on March 27, An Overview of the Enhanced CANDU-6 Capabilities for Plutonium Stockpile Disposition and Advanced Fuel Cycles May7th Annual International Conference on Sustainable Development through Nuclear Research and Education.

According to the American Gas Association (AGA), the full-fuel cycle measure of energy use, also known as source-based energy measurement, refers to the energy consumed in the extraction, production, processing and transportation of the fuel to its point of use.

Analyzing energy consumption in this way enables a more comprehensive calculation of the total energy use and greenhouse emissions. The paper then proceeds to evaluate Canadian experience with greenhouse gases generated by fossil fuels during the preparation of fuel and heavy water used by CANDU power plants.

An estimate of the life-cycle emissions from the CANDU fuel cycle, based on this data, is provided. REVIEW. CANDU® reactors are not only a valuable option for nuclear capacity growth in their conventional high-efficiency, natural uranium-fuelled design, but also provide environmentally-friendly benefits through alternative fuel cycle designs.

The inherent fuel flexibility of CANDU reactors allows the use of recycled uranium, underutilized thorium. The DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU) fuel cycle builds upon CANDU reactor fuel cycle flexibility and the synergism between pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and CANDU reactors.

Spent PWR fuel typically contains % U and % fissile Pu, which exceeds the fissile content of fresh natural uranium at % UTitle: Senior nuclear consultant. AECL has developed the Enhanced CANDU 6 ®* (EC6 ®*) reactor, upgraded from its best- performing CANDU 6 design.

High neutron economy, on-power refueling and a simple fuel bundle provide the EC6 with the flexibility to accommodate a range of advanced fuels, in addition to its standard natural uranium. Fuel is the heart of a nuclear reactor.

CANDU fuel is characterized by a number of features. A CANDU fuel bundle is small, lightweight, simple in its design and manufacture, and consists of only 7 components: ceramic pellets, sheath, CANLUB coating applied to the inside of the sheath.

NUCLEAR REACTOR TYPES Many different reactor systems have been proposed and some of these have been developed to prototype and commercial scale.

Six types of reactor (Magnox, AGR, PWR, BWR, CANDU and RBMK) have emerged as the designs used to produce commercial electricity around the world. A further reactor type. This workshop does not solely address issues related to securing civilian nuclear facilities.

It has a much wider scope encompassing several important issues pertaining to terrorism in general and its impact on specific domains. In addition to nuclear facilities, the subjects addressed include urban. elements dominating nuclear fuel cycle costs, and (3) develop the tools to evaluate the economics of creative solutions to make the nuclear fuel cycle even more cost competitive.

The intended use of the cost data is for the relative economic comparison of options rather than for determination of total fuel cycle costs with great accuracy. The economics of new nuclear power plants is a controversial subject, since there are diverging views on this topic, and multibillion-dollar investments depend on the choice of an energy source.

Nuclear power plants typically have high capital costs for building the plant, but low fuel costs. Spent Fuel Storage - Alternative Methods. Ontario Hydro, at the Pickering units east of Toronto, has built a separate building on the plant site to accommodate the spent fuel storage canisters (smaller than the one shown above since the CANDU design fuel rods are smaller than the PWR fuel assemblies).

This facility is used after the spent fuel.The Fuel Cycle Blog Trending Posts Popular ResourcesAuthor: Victoria Shakespeare.boron concentration vs. cycle burnup – PWR. Commonly used unit, that describes the state of the fuel is the Effective Full Power Day (EFPD).It specifies the burnup of a given fuel assembly by the number of days it has resided in the core while the core was operated at full power.